WorldWide LEADER in SEL/Gould/Encore Third Party Support!
| Home | Products | Systems | Services | What’s new |Parts book | About us | Search | Contents |
The hardware architecture of
the Encore 91 series is based on
Encore’s tradition of high-performance real-time capabilities continues with the Encore 91. In addition to the real-time enhancements to the processor card and bus design, the Encore 91 optionally provides Reflective Memory Systems and High-Speed Data connectivity. The HSD interface developed by Encore is the industry’s de facto standard for high-speed device connectivity. Reflective Memory is Encore’s award winning memory interconnect technology which provides deterministic tight coupling of distributed systems.
Reflective Memory allows for multiple Encore 91 systems to be tightly coupled together to form large scale systems. Reflective Memory is fully supported on Encore’s CONCEPT 32 series of products; therefore, heterogeneous combinations of Encore 91 and CONCEPT 32 systems can be applied to solve the wide ranging demands of real-time applications.
Encore’s innovative operating system design reconciles the competing requirements for standards based systems software and uncomprised real-time performance. The Power DomainTM multi-operating system design harnesses the power of AT&T’s system V.3.2 UNIXR (UMAXTM V) and Encore’s POSIXTM compliant MicroMPXTM real-time kernel. UMAX V provides powerful software capabilities for real-time applications, as well as general purpose UNIX computing. MicroMPX is utilized for running real-time applications within a deterministic time-critical environment. Both operating system environments are symmetrical multithreaded implementations that take full advantage of the tightly coupled parallel architecture of the Encore 91 series systems. MicroMPX retains a large degree of compatibility with MPX-32TM used with Encore’s CONCEPT 32 real-time systems. In addition UMAX V and MicroMPX are fully integrated to present a single operational environment.
A range of packaging options is available including a compact desk-high cabinet and 19-inch rack-based cabinets for computer room applications housing one or two Encore 91 series systems. Customers may purchase the required chassis, boards, power supplies and cooling for mounting in their own cabinets.
The Encore 91 series system conforms to the Binary Compatibility Standard (BCS) defined for the Motorola 88000 family of processors and UNIX V.3.2. By conforming to the standard, a wealth of off-the-shelf applications is available to users of the Encore 91 series systems. These applications may run under UNIX while the remainder of the system is performing real-time tasks under control of MicroMPX.
The Encore 91 series 88100 central processor supports seven data types – from individual bits, to integer arithmetic, to floating point. The floating point format is IEEE 754, single precision (32 bits) or double precision (64 bits).
To further enhance performance of each 88100 processor, the Encore 91
series utilizes 88200 Cache Memory Management Units (CMMUs). The CMMUs
monitor the memory bus for write cycles in order to ensure that its
on-chip cache is updated with new information when data in the main
shared memory is changed. This function of the CMMU maintains
"cache coherency." A dual processor 91 series system has a
cache size of 64 Kbytes per processor. For the quad 91 Series system,
the cache is 32 Kbytes per processor. In each case, half the cache is
used for data and half for instruction.
MicroMPX has been derived from Encore’sMPX-32 real-time operating system, a product proven and field tested with Encore’s CONCEPT 32 systems that have been shipping for over ten years into some of the world’s most time-critical applications. MicroMPX has been designed to be compatible with MPX-32 at the high-level language programmatic interface level. Specifically, current MPX-32 based applications, designed using Encore’s FORTRAN 77+, may be ported to the 91 series by recompiling and relinking for execution under control of MicroMPX. MicroMPX has been designed to conform to real-time standards including POSIX.
With the Encore 91 series, real-time applications are developed using UMAX V and all the standard UNIX facilities and services. The resulting program executes under the control of MicroMPX. MicroMPX supports fast, priority based, fully re-emptive scheduling with isolation from UNIX scheduling and system overhead. In addition MicroMPX services interrupts directly, as well as real-time I/O, without involvement of UMAX V. MicroMPX includes a UNIX-compatible file system which is enhanced to support contiguous and pre-allocated data files, crucial to real-time applications.
The role of UMAX V for the Encore 91 series is to provide a highly productive software development
environment while MicroMPX provides the high-performance real-time execution environment. Of the lour processors available on an Encore 91 series system, at least one must be devoted to UMAX V. The other processors can execute under control of UMAX V or real-time MicroMPX, depending on environmental needs. The user can dynamically reconfigure the processors between UMAX V and MicroMPX when his needs change. System administration and the console functions are handled by UMAX V, as is intersystem communications and the overall scheduling of the other processors. However, once a processor is running MicroMPX, UNIX can not gain control of the processor until MicroMPX relinquishes control.
Main Shared Memory
The Encore 91 series architecture has been designed such that the shared memory is dual ported. One port communicates with the central processors and the other directly with the VME bus. This means that I/O operations on the VME bus can make data transfers directly into shared main memory. It also means that because processor to memory data transfers use Local Bus, they do not place a load on the VME bus.
Also available is a Reflective Memory System (RATS) interface. RMS is used to create a shared—memory multiprocessor system for two or more discrete systems. Each Encore 91 series system is a tightly coupled multiprocessor as it has two or four processors per cluster. However, RMS interfaces two or more 91 series systems to a common memory. Up to nine systems can he interconnected using Reflective Memory. Also, RMS can he used to interconnect the 91 series and Encores CONCEPT/32 line of high performance real-time systems.
Peripherals - disks or cartridge tape transports. Encore 91 series systems configured in cabinets have 21 - slot VME card cages with the same slot dedicated to the processor hoard. The mid-height cabinet has one card cage and space for four standard form-factor peripherals. The full -height cabinet can he configured with two VME card cages and eight standard form—factor peripherals.
For wide area communications, the 91 series includes, as an option, a VME-based synchronous board that supports the X.25 protocol. This option allows the 91 series to communicate with other systems using packet data networks (PDNs) such as Telenet, Tymnet, Datapac, etc.
Also available on the Encore 91 series is the Network File System (NFS) developed by Sun Microsystems Inc. This allows 91 series users to access files on remote systems. The 91 series can act as an NFS Server (to provide files to others) or as a Client (to use files, which reside on other systems). NFS is a protocol that utilizes the standard Ethernet port provided with the 91 series.
Network software built over standard protocols will also be developed to work over Reflective Memory, thereby providing the functionality of Reflective Memory software for large-scale multiprocessor configurations.
The disks and tapes referred to above are housed in Encore designed enclosures that allow easy insertion into mailboxes mounted in 91 series mid-size and full height cabinets. SCSI peripherals can be removed from the system wit hour dropping main processor power. In the case of disks, this feature allows users to remove their private data for secure storage.
As an alternative for tape storage, a standard nine-track tri-density tape transport is available. This is a 125ips transport with front loading access. The tape transport may be mounted in the processor cabinet or in a peripheral cabinet. Encore 91 series systems in desk-height cabinets can use a tabletop nine-track tape transport.
Encore can supply several printers for use with Encore 91 series systems. These can be laser technology page printers or impact printers with parallel or serial interfaces. The Annex terminal server has a parallel port for use by printers In addition, serial printers can be attached to the asynchronous ports on the Processor Board or to the asynchronous ports on the Annex terminal server.
There are two choices for an operator’s console. The entry-level device utilizes a low functionality terminal on one of the asynchronous ports on the Processor Board. Control of multiple networked 9) series systems, from one device, may use a personal computer with a direct attachment to Ethernet. This option pro-vides for window capability to monitor and control multiple 91 series nodes concurrently.
Compilers and Tools
The Encore 91 series FORTRAN is available in two versions: The sequential version creates programs that conventially execute on a single processor. The parallel version creates programs that allow parts of the application to execute on more than one processor at a time. This parallelization can be user directed, automatic, or a combination of both. The parallelization of an application to use multiple processors will give an application a distinct performance boost at run time. The FORTRAN supplied with Encore 91 series systems (ANSI FORTRAN 77) is compatible with the functions and real-time extensions of FORTRAN 77+ available with Encore s CONCEPT 32 systems.
Encore was the first company to offer a validated Parallel Ada compiler. This tradition continues with Parallel Ada availability on the Encore 91 In addition, Encores Micro ARTE (Ada Real-Time Executive) provides a low overhead approach to maximize real-time Ada performance.
Through the use of Ada tasking, the Encore 91 series Ada also allows the user to easily develop applications that execute on more than one processor at a time. The user can modify the number of processors used, depending, for example, on whether code is being debugged or delivered code is running.
All Encore 91 languages also provide access to MicroMPX services. Through these services, the user can develop multi-tasking applications that use multiple processors.
Encore 91’s UNIX and MicroMPX domains provide a complete multi-language-programming environment supplemented by workstation and X-windows-based Upper and Lower CASE tools. The UNIX CASE suite will include support for cost estimation, project management, requirements analysis, structured analysis, structured design, configuration management, software repositories and document publishing.
Motif-based non-intrusive parallel instrumentation (Parasight) software will be integrated as part of the CASE offering. Parasights ability to control and monitor tasks, as well as access memory in a non-intrusive fashion, sets the standard for debugging and tuning large real-time systems. Encore is committed to providing a highly productive CASE environment to reduce our customers software development and maintenance costs.
Product Specifications Processor
Motorola 88200 cache/memory management unit.
16 Mb on processor hoard — single port access.
VME revision C.1 32-bit bus (VME-32).
Power Domain multi-operating system architecture.
24 hardware maskable interrupts.
Languages and Tools
FORTRAN 77 for creation of sequential or parallel code.
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) port standard.
SCSI 5.25-inch disks — 300 and 600 megabytes.
Desk-high cabinet, single node, 30 inches tall.
Mid-size cabinet for single node.
Matching peripheral cabinet for expansion.
21-slot VME 9U card cage up to 20 slots available for options.
Up to four SCSI peripherals.
Power — 220 volts, 50/60 Hz single phase, 50A.
Size — 33 inches wide, 18 inches deep, 53 inches tall.
Full-height cabinet for dual node.
Matching peripheral cabinet for expansion.
Dual 21-slot VME 91J card cages — up to 20 slots available per cage for options.
Up to eight SCSI peripherals.
Power — 220 volts, 50/60 Hz single phase. 50A.
Size — 33 inches wide. 38 inches deep, 78 inches tall.
Temperature: ID to 40 degrees Centigrade. operational.